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JKM > Volume 43(3); 2022 > Article
Ju and Kim: A study of Nutrient Qi(營氣) and Defense Qi(衛氣) from the modern perspective of Visceral body and Somatic body

Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study is to modernize Nutrient Qi(營氣) and Defense Qi(衛氣) from the point of view of Visceral Body and Somatic Body.

Methods

Investigate the areas of body and function of Nutrient Qi(營氣) and Defense Qi(衛氣) recorded in the 『HuangdiNeijing(黃帝內經)』 and 『Dongeuibogam(東醫寶鑑)』. And investigate Visceral Body and Somatic Body that anatomical structure is divided according to function based on the book 『Life and Rhythm』.

Results

Nutrient Qi(營氣) works to nourish the body such as viscera and bowels in the meridian. Defense Qi(衛氣) works to protect the body such as skin, limb joint, eye outside the meridian. The human body is divided into Visceral Body called a vegetable organ and Somatic Body called an animal organ. Visceral body is the organ that manages “nutrition-reproductive” and is divided into the intestine(腸管), blood vessels(血管), and the nephridium(腎管). Somatic Body is an organ that manages ‘sensory-motion’ and is divided into a three-layer structure: the outer layer covering the body surface, the nerve layer connecting the outer layer and the muscle layer, and the muscle layer controling contraction and movement.

Conclusions

It is estimated that Nutrient Qi(營氣) is similar to Visceral Body, and Defense Qi(衛氣) is similar to Somatic Body.

Table 1
The Areas of body of Nutrient Qi(營氣) recorded in the 『HuangdiNeijing(黃帝內經)』 and 『Dongeuibogam(東醫寶鑑)』
Book Areas of body
黃帝內經 素問·調經論 刺此者, 取之經隧, 取血於營, 取氣於衛
靈樞·本神 脾藏營, 營舍意, 脾氣虛則四肢不用, 五藏不安, 實則腹脹, 經溲不利
靈樞·營衛生會 營在脈中, 衛在脈外, 營周不休
靈樞·營衛生會 黃帝曰 願聞營衛之所行, 皆何道從來? 歧伯答曰 營出于中焦, 衛出于下焦
靈樞·決氣 何謂脈? 歧伯曰 壅遏營氣, 令無所避, 是謂脈
靈樞·衛氣 其精氣之行于經者, 爲營氣

東醫寶鑑 氣·氣生於穀 榮在脈中 衛在脈外
血·陰血生於水穀 <又>曰 榮出於中焦
脈·脈字有義 榮行脈中 衛行脈外
Table 2
The Areas of body of Defense Qi(衛氣) recorded in the 『HuangdiNeijing(黃帝內經)』 and 『Dongeuibogam(東醫寶鑑)』
Book Areas of body
黃帝內經 素問·調經論 刺此者, 取之經隧, 取血於營, 取氣於衛
素問·調經論 病在氣, 調之衛
靈樞·營衛生會 營在脈中 衛在脈外 營周不休
靈樞·營衛生會 黃帝曰 願聞營衛之所行, 皆何道從來? 歧伯答曰 營出于中焦, 衛出于下焦
靈樞·脹論 衛氣之在身也 常然並脈循分肉
靈樞·衛氣 其浮氣之不循經者, 爲衛氣
靈樞·邪客 衛氣者, 出其悍氣之慄疾, 而先行於四末分肉皮膚之間, 而不休者也.
靈樞·通天 其衛氣濇 陰陽不和 緩筋而厚皮

東醫寶鑑 氣·氣生於穀 榮在脈中 衛在脈外
脈·脈字有義 榮行脈中 衛行脈外
Table 3
The Function of Nutrient Qi(營氣) recorded in the 『HuangdiNeijing(黃帝內經)』 and 『Dongeuibogam(東醫寶鑑)』
Book Function
黃帝內經 素問·痺論 榮者水穀之精氣也, 和調於五藏, 灑陳於六府, 乃能入於脈也, 故循脈上下, 貫五藏絡六府也.
靈樞·經脈 故衛氣已平, 營氣乃滿, 而經脈大盛
靈樞·營衛生會 人受氣于穀, 穀入于胃, 以傳與肺, 五藏六府, 皆以受氣, 其淸者爲營, 濁者爲衛
靈樞·營衛生會 乃化而爲血, 以奉生身, 莫貴于此, 故獨得行于經隧, 命曰營氣
靈樞·營衛生會 營衛者精氣也
靈樞·天年 五藏堅固, 血脈和調, 肌肉解利, 皮膚緻密, 營衛之行, 不失其常, 呼吸微徐, 氣以度行, 六府化穀, 津液布揚, 各如其常, 故能長久
靈樞·邪客 營氣者, 泌其津液, 注之于脈, 化以爲血, 以榮四末, 內注五藏六府, 以應刻數焉

東醫寶鑑 氣·氣生於穀 「靈樞」曰 人受氣於穀 穀入於胃 以傳與肺 五臟六腑 皆以受氣 其淸者 爲榮 濁者 爲衛
血·陰血生於水穀 『內經』曰 榮者 水穀之精氣也. 和調於五藏 灑陳於六府 乃能入於脈也 故循脈上下 貫五藏 絡六府也.
Table 4
The Function of Defense Qi(衛氣) recorded in the 『HuangdiNeijing(黃帝內經)』 and 『Dongeuibogam(東醫寶鑑)』
Book Function
黃帝內經 素問·痺論 衛者水穀之悍氣也, 其氣慓疾滑利, 不能入於脈也, 故循皮膚之中, 分肉之閒, 熏於肓膜, 散於胸腹.
靈樞·經脈 故衛氣已平, 營氣乃滿, 而經脈大盛
靈樞·營衛生會 人受氣于穀, 穀入于胃, 以傳與肺, 五藏六府, 皆以受氣, 其淸者爲營, 濁者爲衛
靈樞·營衛生會 營衛者精氣也
靈樞·本藏 衛氣者, 所以溫分肉, 充皮膚, 肥腠理, 司關闔者也
靈樞·本藏 衛氣和則分肉解利, 皮膚調柔, 腠理緻密矣
靈樞·天年 五藏堅固, 血脈和調, 肌肉解利, 皮膚緻密, 營衛之行, 不失其常, 呼吸微徐, 氣以度行, 六府化穀, 津液布揚, 各如其常, 故能長久
靈樞·邪客 衛氣者, 出其悍氣之慄疾, 而先行於四末分肉皮膚之間, 而不休者也. 晝日行於陽, 夜行於陰
靈樞·衛氣行 故衛氣之行, 一日一夜五十周於身, 晝日行於陽二十五周, 夜行於陰二十五周, 周於五藏. 是故平旦陰盡, 陽氣出於目, 目張則氣上行於頭, 循項下足太陽, 循背下至小指之端. 其散者, 別於目銳眥, 下手太陽, 下至手小指之間外側. 其散者, 別於目銳眥, 下足少陽, 注小指次指之間, 以上循手少陽之分側, 下至小指之間. 別者, 以上至耳前, 合於頷脈, 注足陽明; 以下行至跗上, 入五指之間. 其散者, 從耳下下手陽明, 入大指之間, 入掌中. 其至於足也, 入足心, 出內踝下, 行陰分, 復合於目, 故爲一周
靈樞·歲露論 其衛氣去, 形獨居, 肌肉減, 皮膚縱, 腠理開, 毛髮殘, 膲理薄, 煙垢落
東醫寶鑑 氣·氣生於穀 「靈樞」曰 人受氣於穀 穀入於胃 以傳與肺 五臟六腑 皆以受氣 其淸者 爲榮 濁者 爲衛
氣·氣爲衛 衛於外 「靈樞」曰 衛氣者 所以溫分肉 而充皮膚 肥腠理 而司開闔 故衛氣溫 則形分足矣
氣·氣爲衛 衛於外 「內經」曰 衛者 水穀之悍氣也 其氣慓疾活利 不能入於脈也 故循皮膚之中 分肉之間 熏於肓膜 散於胸腹.
氣·單方 黃芪 『湯液』曰 實衛氣 能溫分肉 充皮膚 肥腠理 又能補上中下 內外 三焦之氣.
津液·自汗 「靈樞」曰 衛氣者 所以肥腠理 司開闔者 衛氣虛則 理疎開闔 無司而汗多矣
Table 5
Nutrient Qi(營氣), Defense Qi(衛氣) and Visceral Body, Somatic Body
Korean Medicine Anatomic
Similarity Nutrient Qi(營氣) Visceral Body(내장계)
Defense Qi(衛氣) Somatic Body(체벽계)

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