# The Effects of Posture and the Ratio of Inhalation and Exhalation on Heart Rate Variability

## Article information

## Abstract

### Objectives:

The aim of this study is to find what effects both the posture of sitting and standing and the ratio of inhalation and exhalation (I/E) have on heart rate variability (HRV)

### Methods:

We made two breathing sets with 4:6 or 6:4 ratios of I/E at 0.1 Hz of respiratory frequency and sitting or standing position. There was 20 minute-rest between sets. Each set include 5 minute-3 breathings as follows: 0.1Hz paced breath with sitting, usual breathing with standing and 0.1Hz paced breath with standing. Five minute-usual breathings with sitting as basal lines were exerted before and after these 3 breaths. Electrocardiogram-recording was exerted from 73 healthy participants (37 men and 36 women) who carried out two sets of breathings. Finally, HRV indices were analyzed of 62 participants (32 men and 30 women).

### Results:

In 4:6 maintaining the same posture, SDNN were statistically increased, while mean heart rate(HR) were not changed. In 6:4, mean HR, SDNN were statistically increased. When changed from sitting to standing, in 4:6, SDNN were statistically decreased and mean HR was increased. However, in 6:4 during change of posture, SDNN were also statistically decreased and mean HR was statistically decreased. There was no statistical change of HF during 4:6 or 6:4 ratios of I/E moving from sitting to standing position.

### Conclusions:

For increasing HRV, breathing in low respiratory rate with sitting was recommended regardless of ratio of I/E. In changing from sitting to standing, 4:6 may increase mean HR, and 6:4 may decrease mean HR.

**Keywords:**Heart rate Variability; Respiration; Posture; Inhalation; Exhalation