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JKM > Volume 42(2); 2021 > Article
Noh, Choi, Kim, Choi, and Kim: A Preliminary Study on the Change of Intraday Heart Rate Variability and Related Factors in Healthy People

Abstract

Objectives

The object of this study was to examine whether there was a significant difference between morning and afternoon in heart rate variability(HRV) in healthy Korean adults. In addition, the correlation between the characteristics of the subjects and the test results was analyzed.

Methods

From January 8, 2021 to January 29, 2021, twenty healthy subjects received short-term HRV test once in the morning(6:00~12:00) and twice in the afternoon(12:00~18:00). We used IBM SPSS Statistics 27 to test for statistical significance.

Results

The mean heart rate and PSI decreased significantly and SDNN increased significantly in the morning compared to the afternoon. There was no significant difference except RMSSD in HRV conducted at 2 hours intervals in the afternoon. Age had a significant difference in SDNN and TP, and exercise in average heart rate. Age, weekly exercise frequency, and monthly drinking frequency showed significant correlations with HRV indicators. As a result of multiple regression analysis, monthly drinking frequency was a variable that had a significant influence on TP.

Conclusions

The results of the tests performed with short interval were relatively consistent, and when comparing the results of the afternoon and the next morning, there were significant differences in several indicators. In the future, the number of HRV measurements should be increased and a larger-scale follow-up study including more subjects will be needed.

Table 1
Characteristics of Study Subjects
(n=20)

Categories Characteristics Mean±SD Range
Age(yr) Total 36.85±14.10 18.00~79.00
Female 38.00±15.14 18.00~79.00
Male 33.40±11.06 27.00~53.00

Height(cm) Total 165.65±8.87 148.00~190.00
Female 161.79±5.23 148.00~168.00
Male 177.20±7.46 171.00~190.00

Weight(kg) Total 58.95±11.64 38.90~85.00
female 55.19±10.78 38.90~85.00
Male 70.20±5.07 65.00~78.00

Categories Characteristics N(%)

Gender Female 15 (75)
Male 5 (25)

Job Yes 16 (80)
No 4 (20)

Smoking Yes 0 (0)
No 20 (100)

Drinking Yes 16 (80)
No 4 (20)

Caffeine intake Yes 15 (75)
No 5 (25)

Exercise Yes 10 (50)
No 10 (50)
Table 2
HRV Parameters and GARS Score
(n=20)

Categories Characteristics Mean±SD Range
1st HRV* Mean HR (bpm) 72.70±8.59 54.00~84.00
SDNN§ 37.82±22.48 18.47~108.56
RMSSD|| 35.43±30.31 8.85~146.68
PSI 65.80±50.30 8.15~166.67
TP** 1303.93±1440.10 149.01~5945.83
LF++ 479.34±758.86 41.88~3091.77
HF‡‡ 455.36±764.50 27.33~3373.74
LF/HF 1.61±1.41 0.10~6.52

2nd HRV* Mean HR (bpm) 74.20±9.50 54.00~87.00
SDNN 33.67±14.84 14.50~72.35
RMSSD 25.52±13.12 9.66~57.93
PSI 74.26~53.34 10.72~210.98
TP 1074.77±781.06 190.34~2900.37
LF 361.30±445.45 14.38~2048.21
HF 291.51±441.80 24.13~1990.67
LF/HF 2.83±3.72 0.10~14.08

3rd HRV* Mean HR (bpm) 69.30±8.99 51.00~85.00
SDNN 45.01±20.67 18.69~84.96
RMSSD 35.94±25.86 13.13~112.22
PSI 46.05±35.71 9.15~115.89
TP 1550.90±1451.93 218.43~4795.16
LF 463.56±435.47 21.50~1414.55
HF 571.58±921.23 47.00~3634.83
LF/HF 1.87±2.12 0.19~8.96

GARS total score 26.10±12.42 0~46.00

HRV*:Heart Rate Variability; GARS:Global Assessment of Recent Stress; HR:Heart Rate; SDNN§:Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal; RMSSD||:Root Mean Square of Successive Differences between adjacent R-R intervals; PSI:Physical Stress Index; TP**:Total Power; LF++:power in Low Frequency range; HF‡‡:power in High Frequency range

Table 3
Comparing HRV Parameters with Short Measurement Interval
(n=20)

Categories Characteristics Mean±SD p-value

1st HRV 2nd HRV
HRV* Parameters Mean HR (bpm) 72.70±8.59 74.20±9.50 0.198
SDNN 37.82±22.48 33.67±14.84 0.263
RMSSD§ 35.43±30.31 25.52±13.12 0.037#
PSI|| 65.80±50.30 74.26±53.34 0.478
TP 1303.93±1440.09 1074.77±781.06 0.852
LF** 479.34±758.86 361.30±445.45 0.370
HF++ 455.36±764.50 291.51±441.80 0.100
LF/HF 1.61±1.41 2.83±3.72 0.093

HRV*:Heart Rate Variability; HR:Heart Rate; SDNN:Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal; RMSSD§: Root Mean Square of Successive Differences between adjacent R-R intervals; PSI||:Physical Stress Index; TP:Total Power; LF**:power in Low Frequency range; HF++:power in High Frequency range; (#, p<0.05)

Table 4
Comparing HRV Parameters with Long Measurement Interval
(n=20)

Categories Characteristics Mean±SD p-value

Mean value of 1st & 2nd HRV 3rd HRV
HRV* Parameters Mean HR (bpm) 73.45±8.32 69.30±8.99 0.023#
SDNN 35.75±16.99 45.01±20.67 0.001##
RMSSD§ 30.47±20.56 35.94±25.86 0.140
PSI|| 70.03±46.14 46.05±35.71 0.006##
TP 1189.35±1031.64 1550.90±1451.93 0.204
LF** 420.32±568.54 463.56±435.47 0.601
HF++ 373.44±584.21 571.58±921.23 0.247
LF/HF 2.22±2.41 1.87±2.12 0.433

HRV*:Heart Rate Variability; HR:Heart Rate; SDNN:Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal; RMSSD§: Root Mean Square of Successive Differences between adjacent R-R intervals; PSI||:Physical Stress Index; TP:Total Power; LF**:power in Low Frequency range; HF++:power in High Frequency range; (#, p<0.05, ##, p<0.01)

Table 5
Comparing Total HRV Parameters According to Subject Characteristics
Categories Characteristics Mean±SD of Total HRV*
Mean HR (bpm) p-value SDNN§ p-value RMSSD|| p-value PSI p-value TP** p-value LF++ p-value HF‡‡ p-value LF/HF p-value
Age Under 30s (n=11) 72.00± 7.47 0.968 45.42± 20.54 0.046# 38.88± 26.44 0.131 57.66± 45.61 0.602 1749.45± 1253.62 0.029# 594.25± 559.03 0.084 643.62± 872.40 0.118 2.07± 2.30 0.930
Over 40s (n=9) 72.15± 8.73 30.79± 7.06 24.25± 9.05 67.38± 33.49 772.58± 289.96 239.76± 163.52 189.99± 123.40 2.15± 1.52
Gender Female (n=15) 71.87± 8.67 0.850 40.70± 19.11 0.418 34.07± 23.03 0.535 59.70± 42.08 0.662 1413.50± 1153.81 0.461 473.97± 516.87 0.520 495.87± 774.07 0.535 2.28± 2.21 0.271
Male (n=5) 72.67± 5.34 33.24± 9.44 26.97± 10.40 69.05± 35.82 998.96± 676.31 317.02± 179.26 270.34± 207.42 1.56± 0.59
GARS ≤25 (n=10) 70.30± 9.72 0.327 39.94± 17.90 0.783 32.54± 14.71 0.961 60.01± 44.53 0.827 1267.44± 942.11 0.863 466.33± 587.40 0.766 371.72± 405.57 0.667 2.20± 2.32 0.824
>25 (n=10) 73.83± 5.32 37.73± 17.54 32.05± 27.40 64.06± 37.00 1352.29± 1205.90 403.13± 304.74 507.24± 893.13 2.00± 1.59
Job Yes (n=16) 72.85± 6.94 0.383 39.00± 17.51 0.935 32.18± 22.75 0.962 62.16± 37.96 0.979 1323.19± 1104.50 0.914 430.96± 498.30 0.943 439.55± 710.86 0.999 1.85± 1.77 0.262
No (n=4) 68.92± 11.50 38.18± 18.93 32.77± 17.72 61.55± 53.62 1256.55± 965.91 449.81± 280.11 439.23± 624.88 3.10± 2.55
Drinking Yes (n=16) 71.29± 8.04 0.391 40.40± 19.03 0.434 34.23± 23.51 0.435 60.56± 44.09 0.750 1415.51± 1153.34 0.384 488.59± 496.27 0.304 498.72± 750.61 0.450 2.28± 2.12 0.421
No (n=4) 75.17± 7.10 32.60± 3.99 24.58± 6.26 67.94± 17.47 887.29± 297.98 219.29± 107.71 202.54± 80.39 1.38± 0.67
Caffeine intake Yes (n=15) 72.60± 6.55 0.612 38.25± 16.27 0.800 31.22± 22.57 0.709 61.03± 33.14 0.893 1306.93± 1062.83 0.983 466.33± 511.84 0.605 421.14± 728.60 0.841 2.16± 2.01 0.830
No (n=5) 70.47± 11.73 40.60± 22.09 35.51± 19.38 65.07± 60.84 1318.67± 1150.74 339.94± 241.62 494.52± 569.88 1.93± 1.93
Exercies Yes (n=10) 68.63± 5.29 0.047# 43.27± 20.89 0.263 39.03± 26.35 0.165 52.26± 37.85 0.285 1601.83± 1323.15 0.231 531.94± 613.16 0.355 585.58± 877.70 0.349 1.99± 2.13 0.795
No (n=10) 75.50± 8.70 34.40± 12.27 25.56± 13.12 71.81± 41.42 1017.90± 636.88 337.53± 207.73 293.39± 393.17 2.22± 1.84

HRV*:Heart Rate Variability; GARS:Global Assessment of Recent Stress; HR:Heart Rate; SDNN§:Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal; RMSSD||:Root Mean Square of Successive Differences between adjacent R-R intervals; PSI:Physical Stress Index; TP**:Total Power; LF++:power in Low Frequency range; HF‡‡:power in High Frequency range; (#, p<0.05)

Table 6
Comparing Morning HRV Parameters According to Sleep Quality
(n=20)

Categories Characteristics Mean±SD p-value

Sleep well (n=14) Sleep poorly (n=6)
3rd HRV* Mean HR (bpm) 73.86±7.81 70.00±10.45 0.372
SDNN 38.19±25.28 36.98±16.05 0.916
RMSSD§ 35.51±35.19 35.25±16.52 0.987
PSI|| 72.57±55.43 49.99±34.57 0.372
TP 1414.43±1658.23 1046.08±785.77 0.614
LF** 564.19±901.02 281.34±101.42 0.460
HF++ 467.41±856.37 427.27±559.32 0.918
LF/HF 1.70±1.58 1.39±1.02 0.667

HRV*:Heart Rate Variability; HR:Heart Rate; SDNN:Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal; RMSSD§: Root Mean Square of Successive Differences between adjacent R-R intervals; PSI||:Physical Stress Index; TP:Total Power; LF**:power in Low Frequency range; HF++:power in High Frequency range

Table 7
Correlations between Subject Characteristics and HRV Parameters
(n=20)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1. MHR* 1
2. SDNN −.533 (0.015#) 1
3. RMSSD −.556 (0.011#) .925 (0.000##) 1
4. PSI§ .604 (0.005##) −.955 (0.000##) −.914 (0.000##) 1
5. TP|| −.408 (0.074) .929 (0.000##) .797 (0.000##) −.850 (0.000##) 1
6. LF −.536 (0.015) .832 (0.000##) .722 (0.000##) −.791 (0.000##) .875 (0.000##) 1
7. HF** −.393 (0.086) .878 (0.000##) .941 (0.000##) −.833 (0.000##) .767 (0.000##) .574 (0.008##) 1
8. LH/HF −.127 (0.593) −.107 (0.654) −.256 (0.277) .024 (0.920) −.009 (0.970) .275 (0.240) −.471 (0.036#) 1
9. GARS++ −.025 (0.917) .065 (0.786) −.109 (0.649) −.099 (0.679) .103 (0.665) .100 (0.674) .008 (0.972) .093 (0.698) 1
10. Age −.079 (0.742) −.372 (0.106) −.296 (0.205) .219 (0.354) −.466 (0.038#) −.380 (0.098) −.350 (0.131) .360 (0.119) .102 (0.668) 1
11. Caffeine intake(cup/day) .043 (0.856) .004 (0.987) −.150 (0.529) .133 (0.577) .148 (0.533) .001 (0.997) −.026 (0.912) .020 (0.933) .344 (0.137) .026 (0.913) 1
12. Exercise frequency(week) −.548 (0.012#) .185 (0.434) .306 (0.189) −.260 (0.268) .143 (0.549) .072 (0.764) .284 (0.226) −.056 (0.816) .000 (0.999) .326 (0.161) −.064 (0.790) 1
13. Drinking frequency(month) −.510 (0.022#) .339 (0.144) .381 (0.098) −.375 (0.103) .338 (0.145) .525 (0.017#) .292 (0.211) .097 (0.683) .327 (0.159) −.047 (0.844) −.236 (0.317) .533 (0.015#) 1

MHR*:Mean Heart Rate; SDNN:Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal; RMSSD:Root Mean Square of Successive Differences between adjacent R-R intervals; PSI§:Physical Stress Index; TP||:Total Power; LF:power in Low Frequency range; HF**:power in High Frequency range; GARS++:Global Assessment of Recent Stress; (#, p<0.05, ##, p<0.01)

Table 8
Influencing Factors on SDNN and TP
(n=20)

Variables Categories B (SE) β§ t p VIF F(p) R(R2) Adj.R2||
SDNN* Exercise frequency −1.749 (2.998) −.201 −.583 0.568 3.693 4.000 (0.021) 0.718 (0.516) 0.387
Drinking frequency 3.031 (1.758) 0.384 1.724 0.105 1.536
Age −.561 (0.289) −.458 −.1944 0.071 1.719

TP Exercise frequency −150.518 (159.930) −.284 −.941 0.362 3.693 6.378 (0.003) 0.794 (0.630) 0.531
Drinking frequency 254.481 (93.770) 0.528 2.714 0.016# 1.536
Age −30.643 (15.402) −.410 −1.990 0.065 1.719

SDNN*:Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal; TP:Total Power B:Unstandardized; β§:Standardized; Adj.R2||: Adjusted R2; (#, p<0.05)

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