Home | Register | Login | Inquiries | Alerts | Sitemap |  

Advanced Search
JKM > Volume 44(3); 2023 > Article
Kim and Han: Gwibi-tang for Renal Anemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Gwibi-tang (GBT) on renal anemia.


A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate changes in anemia levels before and after oral administration of GBT in patients with renal anemia. Relevant literature published up to May 25, 2023, was searched in 10 academic electronic databases.


Data from 489 patients from 7 RCTs were obtained and analyzed. All participants were receiving erythropoietin-stimulating agent treatment, and most of them were under hemodialysis. Additional administration of GBT to the participants significantly increased the hemoglobin concentration (10.55 g/L, 95% CI 6.99 to 14.11) compared to the control group. Hematocrit, red blood cell count, serum ferritin concentration, transferrin saturation, and the total effective rate for anemia was also significantly higher in the GBT-treated group than in the control group.


This study suggests that GBT may be considered to be a promising option for the effective management of patients with renal anemia under conventional treatment. However, the limitations of this study, including the quantitative and qualitative weakness of the RCTs, the lack of safety-related evidence, and the absence of long-term follow-up data, should be taken into account when interpreting the results of this study.

Fig. 1
Flowchart of study search and selection
Fig. 2
Summary of risk of bias of included studies
Fig. 3
Effect of oral administration of Gwibi-tang for renal anemia (Gwibi-tang plus conventional treatment versus conventional treatment)
(A) Red blood cell count (x 1012/L)
(B) Hemoglobin concentration (g/L)
(C) Hematocrit (%)
(D) Serum ferritin concentration (ng/mL)
(E) Transferrin saturation (%)
Fig. 4
Effect of oral administration of Gwibi-tang on total effective rate for renal anemia (Gwibi-tang plus conventional treatment versus conventional treatment)
Table 1
Characteristics of Included Studies
Study ID Participants Intervention Outcomes

Gender (M/F) Age Baseline Hb (g/L) PI Formulation Dosea Frequency Duration RBC Hb Hct SF TS TEF Etc.
Cheng 05 TG: 23/10 TG: 44.65±11.53 TG: 63.22±15.14 ND Pill 18 g 3 12 wk O O O O O O
CG: 22/10 CG: 44.36±9.28 CG: 65.42±14.27

Cheng 14 Total: 51/23 Total: 53±4.5 TG: 63.24±15.21 ND Decoction 1 packb 2 16 wk O O O O O
CG: 65.51±14.29

Fang 11 TG: 16/13 TG: 46.8±10.4 TG: 63.22±15.25 ND Pill 18 g 3 12 wk O O O O O
CG: 18/12 CG: 50.2±13.5 CG: 65.48±14.37

Huang 22 TG: 33/27 TG: 62.2±1.4 TG: 70.8±2.6 Yc Decoction 1 pack 2 16 wk O O O O EPO, BUN, Cr
CG: 31/29 CG: 61.8±2.2 CG: 71.1±2.2

Jia 21 Total: 33/27 Total: 46.57±2.62 TG: 64.78±15.52 ND Capsule 3.6 to 2.7 ge 3 12 wk O O O O O
CG: 64.46±15.56

Ma 14 TG: 16/14 TG: 52.17±7.32 TG: 62.24±8.36 Yd Pill 30 g 5 8 wk O O O O EPO, hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-α
CG: 15/15 CG: 55.96±6.97 CG: 63.98±8.46

Qu 19 TG: 15/10 TG: 57.65±2.48 TG: 65.36±15.90 ND Decoction 1 pack 2 24 wk O O O O O Albumin, WHOQOL-BREF
CG: 14/11 CG: 57.89±2.51 CG: 65.29±15.84

* Abbreviations

M: male, F: female, Hb: hemoglobin concentration, PI: pattern identification, RBC: red blood cell count, Hct: hematocrit, SF: serum ferritin, TF: transferrin saturation, TEF: total effective rate, TG: treatment group, CG: control group, ND: not done, wk: week, Y: yes, w: week, EPO: erythropoietin, BUN: blood urea nitrogen, Cr: creatinine, hs-CRP: high sensitive C reactive protein, IL: interleukin, TNF: tumor necrosis factor, WHOQOL-BREF: The World Health Organization Quality of Life brief questionnaire

* Superscripts

a dose for 1 day,

b pack = 貼,

c qi deficiency and blood stasis (氣血兩虛),

d spleen deficiency (脾虛) and blood deficiency (血虛),

e start with 3.6 g/day and reduce to 2.7 g/day when

Table 2
Prescription Composition of Gwibi-tang Used in Included Studies
Study ID/ingredients Astragali Radix Ginseng Radix Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba Poria Cocos Wolf Angelicae Gigantis Radix Longanae Arillus Zyzyphi Spinosae Semen Polygalae radix Aucklandiae Radix Glycyrrhizae Radix Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus Jujubae Fructurs Other ingredients.
(黃芪) (人蔘) (白朮) (茯 ) (當歸) ( 眼肉) (酸棗仁) (遠志) (木香) (甘草) (生薑) (大棗)

Cheng14b 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 .2


Huang22b 20 15* 15 15 10 20 15 10 10 10 6 6 grains Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (熟地 ) 12, Paeoniae Radix Alba (白芍藥) 10,Polygonati Rhizoma (精) 15



Qu19b 30 20* 12 15 12 20 20 10 10 6 Psoraleae Fructus 10 (補骨脂), White Aconi Radix (白附片)10,Citri Pericarpium (陳皮) 10

The number in the table represents the daily dose (gram) of each ingredient.

* Codonopsis Pilosulae Radix (黨參) was used instead of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer.

Abbreviation: DNR, dosage not reported


a pill (九芝堂归脾丸(浓缩丸)(湖南九芝堂股份有限公司)),

b decoction,

c capsule (归脾胶囊(安徽省先锋制药有限公司))

Table 3
Certainty of Evidence Assessed with the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) Methodology
Outcomes Participants (studies) Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Effect size, absolute (95% CI) Certainty
RBC 175 (3 RCTs) seriousa not serious not serious seriousb MD 0.7 higher (0.57
higher to 0.83 higher)
Hb 489 (7 RCTs) seriousa seriousc not serious not serious MD 10.55 higher
(6.99 higher to 14.11 higher)
Hct 489 (7 RCTs) seriousa seriousc not serious not serious MD 5.16 higher
(2.94 higher to 7.38 higher)
SF 429 (6 RCTs) seriousa not serious not serious not serious MD 12.08 higher
(10.25 higher to 13.92 higher)
⨁ ⨁ ⨁○
TS 259 (4 RCTs) seriousa not serious not serious seriousb MD 1.91 higher
(0.06 higher to 3.77 higher)
TEF 489 (7 RCTs) seriousa not serious seriousd not serious 215 more per 1,000
(from 159 more to 254 more)

* Abbreviations

CI: confidence interval, RBC: red blood cell count (x 1012/L), RCT, randomized controlled trial, Hb: hemoglobin concentration (g/L), Hct: hematocrite (%), SF: serum ferritin (ng/mL), TS: transferrin saturation (%), TEF: total effective rate, MD: mean difference

* Explanations

a Some concerns were raised about the risk of bias in all included studies.

b The number of participants included in the meta-analysis is lower than 400.

c The I2 value was 75% or more.

d The outcome is not internationally used as an official tool to evaluate the treatment response of renal anemia.


1. Korean Academy of Medical Sciences. Evidence-based Chronic Kidney Disease Clinical Practice Guidelines for Primary Medical Use. Seoul: Korean Academy of Medical Sciences & Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency;2022. [cited 2023 June 19]. Available from: ULR: https://www.ksn.or.kr/bbs/?code=g_guideline

2. Fishbane S., Coyne D.W.2020; How I treat renal anemia. Blood. 136:7. 783–789. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004330

3. Portolés J., Martín L., Broseta J.J., Cases A.2021; Anemia in chronic kidney disease: from pathophysiology and current treatments, to future agents. Frontiers in Medicine. 8:642296 https://doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.642296
pmid pmc

4. Santos E.J.F., Filho N.S., Dos Santos A.2020; Erythropoietin resistance in patients with chronic kidney disease: current perspectives. International journal of nephrology and renovascular disease. 13:231–237. https://doi:10.2147/IJNRD.S239151
pmid pmc

5. Mimura I., Tanaka T., Nangaku M.2015; How the target hemoglobin of renal anemia should be? Nephron. 131:3. 202–209. https://doi:10.1159/000440849

6. Kliger A.S., Foley R.N., Goldfarb D.S., Goldstein S.L., Johansen K., Singh A., et al2013; KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for anemia in CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 62:5. 849–859. https://doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.06.008
crossref pmid

7. Singh A.K.2010; What is causing the mortality in treating the anemia of chronic kidney disease: erythropoietin dose or hemoglobin level? Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. 19:5. 420–424. https://doi:10.1097/MNH.0b013e32833cf1d6
crossref pmid

8. US Food & Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Modified dosing recommendations to improve the safe use of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) in chronic kidney disease. 2017. [cited 2023 June 19]. Available from: URL: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communication-modified-dosing-recommendations-improve-safe-use-erythropoiesis

9. Geng F., Ma L., Li J., Jiang C.2021; Research progress of Chinese and Western Medicine in the Treatment of Renal Anemia (中西医药治疗肾性贫血的研究进展). Popular Science & Technology. 11:103–108. https://doi:10.16040/j.cnki.cn15-1101.2023.01.049

10. Zheng L., Liu M., Sun X.2023; Analysis of medication rules of traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of renal anemia based on data mining (基于数据挖掘的中药治疗 肾性贫血的用药规律研究). China Pharmacy. 34:05. 591–594+619. https://doi:10.6039/j.issn.1001-0408.2023.05.15

11. Zhao M., Zhang Y., Li L., Yu Z., Li B.2017; Efficacy and safety of Danggui Buxue Decoction in combination with western medicine treatment of anemia for renal anemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Translational Medicine. 5:6. 136 https://doi:10.21037/atm.2017.01.17
crossref pmid pmc

12. Park J.K., Kim K.H.2017; A Survey on Uncovered Services in National Health Insurance of Traditional Korean Medicine Institution. Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine. 21:3. 43–50. https://doi:10.25153/spkom.2017.21.3.005

13. Chen W.D., Huang H.S., Su Y.C., Chou S.C., Ho W.C., Kao M.C., et al2018; The characteristics and prescription patterns of Chinese herbal medicine in clinical practice for the treatment of anemia. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 57:4. 570–577.
crossref pmid

14. Faculty of Internal Medicine of Liver System of Korean Medicine. 2016. Textbook of Internal Medicine of Liver System in Korean Medicine. Seoul: Book Publisher Nadoh;p. 540

15. East-West Medical Convergence Research Society. 1997. East-West Clinical Medicine. Seoul: Younglim Publishing Company;p. 113–116.

16. Chen L.J., Yu Y., Xiong W.S.2019; A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Guipi Decoction in Assisting Treatment of Iron Deficiency. Anemia Journal of Zhejiang University of TCM. 43:12. 1368–1376. https://doi:10.16466/j.issn1005-5509.2019.12.015

17. Yang M., Geng S., Zhu Y., Fei Z., Li X., Zhang J., et al2020; Meta-analysis of Guipi Decoction Combined with Western Medicine on Iron Deficiency Anemia. Clinical Journal of Chinese Medicine. 15:49–52+55. https://doi:doi:10.3969/j.issn.1674-7860.2020.15.021

18. Li J., Cai Y.2010; Thirty cases of megaloblastic anemia treated by Guipi decoction combined with Western medicine (归 脾汤联合西药治疗巨幼细胞贫血30例). Shaanxi Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 31:10. 1347–1348.

19. Dong L., Liu H., Gu Q., Han Z.2015; Effect of Guipi Decoction on Bone Marrow Serum FGF-1 in Patients with Chronic Aplastic Anemia of Heart and Spleen Deficiency. China Tranaslational Medicine and Integrative Medicine Symposium (Guangzhou station) Papers Comprehensive Journal Chinese Journal of Hypertension Publishing Society Proceedings. 2

20. Yang Y.2020; Clinical observation of Guipi decoction combined with ferrous sulfate folic acid tablets in the treatment of perioperative anemia in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures (归脾汤结合硫酸亚铁叶酸片治疗老年股 骨转子间骨折围手术期贫血的临床观察). Nei Mongol Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 39:05. 69–71. https://doi:10.16040/j.cnki.cn15-1101.2020.05.043

21. Wang C., Li T.2020; Efficacy evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine for nourishing qi, nourishing blood and promoting blood circulation in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome-refractory anemia (益气养血活血中药 治疗骨髓增生异常综合征-难治性贫血的疗效评价). Guide of China Medicine. 18:07. 182–183. https://doi:10.15912/j.cnki.gocm.2020.07.136

22. Liu X., Su L., Zhu X.2019; Clinical Study on Modified Guipi Tang Combined with Routine Therapyfor Cirrhosis Complicated with Anemia. Journal of New Chinese Medicine. 51:05. 76–78. https://doi:10.13457/j.cnki.jncm.2019.05.022

23. Song C., Wang C., Shen F.2013; Clinical Study of Guipi Soup in the Treatment of Anemiaof Cancer. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 28:03. 320–321. https://doi:10.16368/j.issn.1674-8999.2013.03.019

24. Li S.2020; Clinical Study of Jiawei Guipi Decoction in Treating Tumor-Related Anemia in Patients with Gastric Cancer. Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Master's thesis. https://doi:10.26922/d.cnki.ganzc.2020.000023

25. Bao Y., Zhou H., Ni Y., Qian H.2023; Clinical Study on Guipi Decoction Combined with Roxadustat for Chronic Kidney DIsease Complicated with Renal Anemia. New Chinese Medicine. 55:09. 64–67. https://doi:10.13457/j.cnki.jncm.2023.09.011

26. Federation of Herbal Formula Professors of Colleges of Korean Medicine. 2019. Textbook of Herbal Formula. Seoul: Yeonglimsa;p. 290–291.

27. Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine. OASIS Traditional Medicine Information Portal: Herbal Formula Search. 2021. [cited 2023 June 19]. Available from: https://oasis.kiom.re.kr/oasis/pres/prdetailView.jsp?idx=3#view02

28. TSUMURA. Product information: Kihi-to. [cited 2023 June 19]. Available from: https://www.tsumura.co.jp/kampo/list/detail/065.html

29. Sterne J.A.C., Savović J., Page M.J., Elbers R.G., Blencowe N.S., Boutron I., et al2019; RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. Bmj. 366:l4898 https://doi:10.1136/bmj.l4898
crossref pmid

30. National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. 2022. Handbook for Clinical Practice Guideline Developer. Seoul: NECA;p. 135–143. p. 343–347.

31. Higgins J.P.T., Savović J., Page M.J., Elbers R.G.Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 6.3. 2022. [cited 2023 June 19]. Available from: URL: www.training.cochrane.org/handbook

32. Cheng J., Yi W., Pan X., Qi A., Cheng S.2005; Efficacy of GuiPiWan Treating Anemia Patients During Hemodialysis. Journal of Nursing Science. 20:01. 41–42.

33. Cheng X., Huang X., Yao L.2014; Clinical Efficacy Analysis of Guipi Decoction in the Treatment of Anemia in Patients undergoing. Hemodialysis. 9:11. 1482–1484.

34. Fang H., Wu G., Xu W., Fu S.2011; Curative Effect Observation on 30 Cases of Maintenance Hemodialysis Anemia Treated by Guipi Pill (归脾丸治疗维持性血液透析贫血30例 疗效观察). Zhejiang Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 46:06. 423–424.

35. Huang T., Li X., Guo T.2022; Effect of modified Guipi decoction on renal anemia and its effect on erythropoietin level (归脾汤加减治 疗肾性贫血的效果及对促红细胞生成素水平的影 响). Heilongjiang Medicine Journal. 35:04. 847–849. https://doi:10.14035/j.cnki.hljyy.2022.04.037

36. Jia Z., Wang L., Zhou L., Cai X.2021; Improvement effect of Guipi Capsule on erythropoietin resistance in maintenance hemodialysis patients (归脾胶囊对维持性血液透 析患者促红细胞生成素抵抗的改善作用). Chinese Journal of Traditional Medical Science and Technology. 28:06. 946–947.

37. Ma J., Zhang S.2014; Discussion on “Enriching Blood by Tonifying Spleen” Connotation from Adjusting of Micro-inflammatory State in Renal Anemia Patients with MHD Technique Interfering by Gui-Pi Pills. Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica-WOrld Science and Technology. 16:03. 634–647.

38. Qu W.2019; Observation on the application effect of traditional Chinese medicine Guipi decoction in patients with uremia hemodialysis anemia (中药归脾汤在尿毒症血液透析贫血患者中 的应用效果观察). Practical Clinical Journal of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. 2019; 19:03. 82–4. https://doi:10.13638/j.issn.1671-4040.2019.03.041

39. Reinisch W., Staun M., Tandon R.K., Altorjay I., Thillainayagam A.V., Gratzer C., et al2013; A randomized, open-label, non-inferiority study of intravenous iron isomaltoside 1,000 (Monofer) compared with oral iron for treatment of anemia in IBD (PROCEED). American Journal of Gastroenterology. 108:12. 1877–1888. https://doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.335

40. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. 2011. Guidelines for Non-Clinical and Clinical Evaluation of Biosimilars of Erythropoietin. Osong: MFDS.

41. Deved V., Poyah P., James M.T., Tonelli M., Manns B.J., Walsh M., et al2009; Ascorbic acid for anemia management in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of kidney diseases. 54:6. 1089–1097. https://doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.06.040
crossref pmid

42. Ryu S.R., Park S.K., Jung J.Y., Kim Y.H., Oh Y.K., Yoo T.H., et al2017; The prevalence and management of anemia in chronic kidney disease patients: result from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Journal of Korean medical science. 32:2. 249–56. https://doi:10.3346/jkms.2017.32.2.249

43. Evans M., Bower H., Cockburn E., Jacobson S.H., Barany P., Carrero J.J.2020; Contemporary management of anaemia, erythropoietin resistance and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: a nationwide analysis. Clinical kidney journal. 13:5. 821–827. https://doi:10.1093/ckj/sfaa054
pmid pmc

44. World Health Organization. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO/NMH/NHD/MNM/11.1);2016. [cited 2023 June 19]. Available from: http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/haemoglobin.pdf

45. Pfeffer M.A., Burdmann E.A., Chen C.Y., Cooper M.E., De Zeeuw D., Eckardt K.U., et al2009; A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 361:21. 2019–2032. https://doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0907845
crossref pmid

46. Leyland-Jones B.2003; Breast cancer trial with erythropoietin terminated unexpectedly. The lancet oncology. 4:8. 459–60. https://doi:10.1016/s1470-2045(03)01163-x
crossref pmid

47. Pollock C., Johnson D.W., Ho W.H., Rossert J., Casadevall N., Schellekens H., et al2008; Pure red cell aplasia induced by erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 3:1. 193–199. https://doi:10.2215/CJN.02440607
crossref pmid

48. HIRA. Details on application standards and methods of medical care benefits (drugs). Lucy design. July. 2022; edition.

49. Shaikh H., Hashmi M.F., Aeddula N.R.2023. Anemia of Chronic Renal Disease. StatPearls [Internet]. 2023. [cited 2023 June 19]. Available from: URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539871

50. Li L.2020; Clinical Observation on Modified Guipi Decoction Combined with Erythropoietin in Treating Anemia in Patients with Maintenance Hemodialysis (加减归脾汤联 合促红细胞生成素治疗维持性血液透析患者贫血的 临床观察). Health for Everyone. 12:104

51. Zhou X.2017. Clinical Study of the Effect of Guipi Decoction on Bone Marrow Suppression after Chemotherapy for NSCLC, Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Master's thesis.

52. 殷丽娟 刘立, 许瑞 彭晓明, 杨欢 . 归脾汤对苯中 毒小鼠骨髓造血干细胞表型 Sca-1 和 CD34+, 细 胞分裂周期的影响. 北京中医药大学学报. 2014; 37:4. 255–8.

53. 李龙龙 刘立, 高丽娟 周亚兰. 归脾汤对苯中毒小 鼠外周血, 骨髓有核细胞及细胞凋亡蛋白 Fas, FasL 表达的影响. 中医临床研究. 2018; 10:3. 31–5.

54. Chang M.S., Kim D.R., Ko E.B., Choi B.J., Park S.Y., Kang S.A., et al2009; Treatment with Astragali radix and Angelicae radix enhances erythropoietin gene expression in the cyclophosphamide-induced anemic rat. Journal of Medicinal Food. 12:3. 637–642. https://doi:10.1089/jmf.2007.0727
crossref pmid

55. Zhang L., Gong A.G., Riaz K., Deng J.Y., Ho C.M., Lin H.Q., et al2017; A novel combination of four flavonoids derived from Astragali Radix relieves the symptoms of cyclophosphamide-induced anemic rats. FEBS Open Bio. 7:3. 318–323. https://doi:10.1002/2211-5463.12146
pmid pmc

56. Jang E., Kwon S., Cho Y., Woo H., Kim Y., Lee J.2013; A case of Guibitanggami treatmentto an iron deficiency anemia patient. The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine. spr. 1. 142–147.

57. Pyeon B.–2012. Anemia correction in patients with chronic renal failure (administration of hematopoietic hormones). Journal of Korean Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 29:1. 87–94.

58. Li J., Ha H., Jung D., Lee H., Lee J., Huang D., Shin H., et al2010; Comparative Study of 25 Herbal Formulas on Anti-Inflammatory Effect. The Jorunal of Oriental Obstetrics & Gynecology. 23:3. 101–111.

59. Shin N.R., Jung T.Y., Seo C.S., Park S.W., Ko J.W., Kim J.C., et al2018; Protective effect of water extract of guibi-tang against pulmonary inflammation induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide. Laboratory Animal Research. 34:92–100. https://doi:10.5625/lar.2018.34.3.92
pmid pmc

60. Kim J., Lee J., Ha H., Seo C., Lee M., Lee H., et al2009; Analysis of Studies on Guibi-tang (Guipitang) for Fundamental Establishment of Evidence Based Medicine. Journal of oriental neuropsychiatry. 20:3. 205–216.

61. Gluba-Brzózka A., Franczyk B., Olszewski R., Rysz J.2020; The Influence of Inflammation on Anemia in CKD Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 21:3. 725 https://doi:10.3390/ijms21030725
crossref pmid pmc

62. Dai C., Shi L., Ji Y., Xia L., Jiang Y., Zhang A., et al2019; Clinical study of the effects of guipi decoction on oxygen carry capacity of red blood cells in the patients with anemia of heart and spleen deficiency. World Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine. 9:1283–1287. https://doi:10.13935/j.cnki.sjzx.190924

63. Rong Y., Wu D., Li M., Teng J.2023; Efficacy and safety of Guipi Decoction in the treatment of chronic heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine. 102:9. e33181 https://doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000033181
crossref pmid pmc

64. Hwang J., Yang M., Shin H.1997; Survey for approximate composition and mineral content of medicinal herbs. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology. 29:4. 671–9.

65. Lee J.2007. A Study on effectiveness of dietary self-efficacy, dietary knowledge and social support for exercise diet compliance of patients on hemodialysis. Yonsei University;Master's thesis.

66. Chang D., Zhang G.2019; Curative effect of modified Guipi decoction on renal anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease and its influence on blood routine and blood biochemical indicators (加味归脾汤治疗慢性肾 脏病患者肾性贫血的疗效及对血常规和血生化指标 的影响). Journal of North Pharmacy. 16:04. 104–105.

67. Qiu S.2021; Application effect of modified Guipi decoction combined with erythropoietin in the treatment of anemia in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (加减归脾汤联合促红 细胞生成素在维持性血液透析患者贫血治疗中的应 用效果). Clinical Research. 29:08. 128–9.

68. Lee J., Eum H., Chung T., Lee Y., Um Y., Yim N., et alSingle Dose Oral Toxicity Study of the Gwibi-tang Extract in ICR Mice. The Journal of Oriental Obstetrics Gynecology. 23:4. 47–56.

69. Lee M., Seo C., Kim Y., Shin H.2015; Safety assessment of Guibi-tang: Subchronic toxicity study in Crl: CD SD rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 73:2. 485–493.
crossref pmid

70. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. 2011. Information Book for Proper Use of Drugs for Patients with Renal Diseases. Seoul: Ministry of FDS;p. 20

Editorial office contact information
3F, #26-27 Gayang-dong, Gangseo-gu Seoul, 157-200 Seoul, Korea
The Society of Korean Medicine
Tel : +82-2-2658-3627   Fax : +82-2-2658-3631   E-mail : skom1953.journal@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Developed in M2PI